Saturday, September 27, 2008

List of birds of Thailand

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Oriental White-eyevery common resident
Oriental White-eye
very common resident

982 species of bird have been recorded in the wild in Thailand, of which three are endemic, one has been introduced by humans, and 45 are rare or accidental. Seven species listed are extirpated in Thailand and are not included in the species count, and 49 species are globally threatened.[1] The sequence of bird families and species follows Clements (2000);[2] unless otherwise indicated, the species included are as in Robson (2004), and the status in Thailand is from Lekagula and Round (1991). Species with no indicated status are resident or partially resident non-rarities.[3][4]

In 1991, it was estimated that 159 resident and 23 migratory species were endangered or vulnerable, due to forest clearance, illegal logging, hunting, and habitat degradation, especially in the lowlands. Those species most affected are large water birds, whose wetland habitat has been largely lost to agriculture, and forest species, where deforestation for agriculture and logging have removed or degraded the woodlands.[4]

Laem Pak Bia, a location for the enigmatic 'White-faced' Plover
Laem Pak Bia, a location for the enigmatic 'White-faced' Plover[5]

The birds of Thailand are mainly typical of the Indomalaya ecozone, with affinities to the Indian subcontinent to the west, and, particularly in the southern Peninsular region, with the Sundaic fauna to the southeast. The northern mountains are outliers of the Tibetan Plateau, with many species of montane birds, and in winter the avifauna is augmented by migrants from the eastern Palearctic and Himalayas. The Java Sparrow has been introduced by man, and the Cattle Egret has naturally colonised.[4]

Thailand's habitats are contiguous with those of neighbouring countries, so it has few endemic birds. Perhaps the most intriguing is the White-eyed River Martin, known only from its single wintering site in Thailand, and now probably extinct.[6][7]

Table of contents

Grebes . Shearwaters and petrels . Storm-petrels . Tropicbirds . Pelicans . Boobies and gannets . Cormorants . Darters . Frigatebirds . Bitterns, herons and egrets . Storks . Ibises and spoonbills . Ducks, geese and swans . Osprey . Eagles, kites and allies . Falcons . Pheasants and partridges . Buttonquails . Cranes . Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots . Finfoot . Jacanas . Painted snipe . Crab Plover . Avocets and stilts . Thick-knees . Pratincoles and coursers . Plovers and lapwings . Sandpipers and allies . Skuas . Gulls . Terns . Skimmers . Pigeons and doves . Parrots . Cuckoos . Barn owls . Typical owls . Frogmouths . Nightjars . Swifts . Treeswifts . Trogons . Kingfishers . Bee-eaters . Typical rollers . Hoopoes . Hornbills . Barbets . Honeyguides . Woodpeckers .

Broadbills . Pittas . Larks . Swallows and martins . Wagtails and pipits . Cuckoo-shrikes . Bulbuls . Leafbirds . Ioras . Dippers . Thrushes and allies . Cisticolas and allies . Old World warblers . Old World flycatchers . Fantails . Monarch flycatchers . Whistlers . Babblers . Parrotbills . Whipbirds, quail-thrushes and allies . Long-tailed tits . Thornbills and allies . Tits . Nuthatches . Treecreepers . Penduline tits . Sunbirds and spiderhunters . Flowerpeckers . White-eyes . Old World orioles . Fairy-bluebirds . Shrikes . Helmetshrikes . Drongos . Woodswallows . Crows and allies . Starlings . Weavers and allies . Waxbills and allies . Buntings . Finches . Sparrows .

See also References External links

[edit] Grebes

Little Grebe in non-breeding plumage
Little Grebe in non-breeding plumage

Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-sized diving birds. They breed on fresh water, but often visit the sea whilst migrating and in winter. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers; however, their feet are placed far back on their bodies, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide, though one—the Alaotra Grebe—may now be extinct.[8] Of these, three species have been recorded in Thailand.

Name Binomial Status
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus Very rare winter visitor
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis Very rare winter visitor

[edit] Shearwaters and petrels

Order: Procellariiformes Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide of which three have occurred in Thailand.[9]

Short-tailed Shearwater is a long-distance migrant occasionally recorded in Thailand
Short-tailed Shearwater is a long-distance migrant occasionally recorded in Thailand
Common name Binomial Status
Streaked Shearwater Calonectris leucomelas Very rare winter visitor
Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus Accidental
Short-tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris Accidental, may be under-recorded[10]

[edit] Storm-petrels

Storm-petrels are small birds which spend most of their lives at sea, coming ashore only to breed. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering or pattering across the water. Their flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 22 species worldwide, one of which has been recorded in Thailand.[9]

Common name Binomial Status
Swinhoe's Storm-petrel Oceanodroma monorhis Accidental, one record

[edit] Tropicbirds

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are three species worldwide of which two have occurred in Thailand.[11]

Common name Binomial Status
Red-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda Accidental
White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Accidental

[edit] Pelicans

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Pelecanidae

Spot-billed Pelican, once common, now rare and endangered
Spot-billed Pelican, once common, now rare and endangered

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are eight species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[11]

Common name Binomial Status
Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis Rare, probably once bred. Globally threatened[12]

[edit] Boobies

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Sulidae

The gannets and boobies in the family Sulidae are medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are nine species worldwide of which three have occurred in Thailand.[11]

Common name Binomial Status
Masked Booby Sula dactylatra Accidental
Red-footed Booby Sula sula Accidental
Brown Booby Sula leucogaster Rare visitor, formerly bred

[edit] Cormorants

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies; the majority of species have mainly dark plumage, but some are pied black and white, and a few are more colourful. There are 38 members of this family worldwide, of which three occur in Thailand.[11]

Little Cormorant, a resident breeding species
Little Cormorant, a resident breeding species
Common name Binomial Status
Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Rare winter visitor, formerly bred
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger

[edit] Darters

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Anhingidae

Oriental Darter. Adult of this now rare species
Oriental Darter. Adult of this now rare species

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because they have long thin necks, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.

The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape, and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage, especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are four species worldwide, of which one occurs in Thailand.[11]

Common name Binomial Status
Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster Rare and globally threatened visitor, formerly bred[13]

[edit] Frigatebirds

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are five species worldwide of which three occur in Thailand.[11]

Common name Binomial Status
Christmas Island Frigatebird Fregata andrewsi Winter visitor
Great Frigatebird Fregata minor Rare
Lesser Frigatebird Fregata ariel Winter visitor

[edit] Bitterns, herons and egrets

Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of this family fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide of which 20 occur in Thailand.[14]

Yellow Bitternvery common resident and winter visitor
Yellow Bittern
very common resident and winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea Winter visitor, formerly bred
Great-billed Heron Ardea sumatrana Now very rare
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea Winter visitor
Great Egret Ardea alba
Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia Winter visitor
Little Egret Egretta garzetta
Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes Very rare winter visitor, globally vulnerable[15]
Pacific Reef Heron Egretta sacra
Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus Winter visitor
Javan Pond Heron Ardeola speciosa
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
Striated Heron Butorides striata
Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
Malayan Night-Heron Gorsachius melanolophus
Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis
Schrenck's Bittern Ixobrychus eurhythmus Passage migrant
Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
Black Bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis
Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris Winter visitor

[edit] Storks

Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are virtually mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide of which ten occur in Thailand.[14]

Painted Storknow a rare breeder and passage migrant
Painted Stork
now a rare breeder and passage migrant
Common name Binomial Status
Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea Extirpated and globally vulnerable[16]
Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala
Asian Openbill Anastomus oscitans
Black Stork Ciconia nigra Rare winter visitor
Woolly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus Now very rare
Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi
White Stork Ciconia ciconia One record
Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus Extirpated and globally threatened[17]
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Rare
Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius Extirpated and globally endangered[18]

[edit] Ibises and spoonbills

Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Threskiornithidae

Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which comprises the ibises and spoonbills. Its members have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary flight feathers. They are strong fliers and, despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide of which six occur in Thailand.[14]

Black-faced Spoonbillrare winter visitor
Black-faced Spoonbill
rare winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus Extirpated and globally threatened[19]
White-shouldered Ibis Pseudibis davisoni Extirpated and globally critically endangered[20]
Giant Ibis Pseudibis gigantea Extirpated and globally critically endangered[21]
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia Very rare winter visitor
Black-faced Spoonbill Platalea minor Very rare winter visitor, globally endangered[22]

[edit] Ducks, geese and swans

Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide of which 25 occur in Thailand.[23]

Male Cotton Pigmy-goose
Male Cotton Pigmy-goose
Common name Binomial Status
Lesser Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna javanica
Swan Goose Anser cygnoides Accidental
Greylag Goose Anser anser Accidental
Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus Very rare winter visitor
Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea Rare winter visitor
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna Very rare winter visitor, one record
White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata Very rare and endangered resident[24]
Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos Rare resident
Cotton Pygmy-goose Nettapus coromandelianus
Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata Very rare winter visitor
Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope Winter visitor
Falcated Duck Anas falcata Accidental
Gadwall Anas strepera Very rare winter visitor
Common Teal Anas crecca Winter visitor
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Accidental
Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha Rare winter visitor
Northern Pintail Anas acuta Winter visitor
Garganey Anas querquedula Winter visitor
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata Winter visitor
Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina Very rare winter visitor
Common Pochard Aythya ferina Very rare winter visitor
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca Rare winter visitor
Baer's Pochard Aythya baeri Rare winter visitor
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula Rare winter visitor

[edit] Osprey

Order: Falconiformes Family: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.[25]

Common name Binomial Status
Osprey Pandion haliaetus Winter visitor

[edit] Eagles, kites and allies

Order: Falconiformes Family: Accipitridae

The Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds mostly have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide of which 46 occur in Thailand.[26]

Crested Serpent Eagle,a common resident
Crested Serpent Eagle,
a common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Jerdon's Baza Aviceda jerdoni
Black Baza Aviceda leuphotes
Oriental Honey-buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus
Bat Hawk Macheiramphus alcinus Rare and threatened
Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus
Black Kite Milvus migrans Winter visitor, some breed
Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus
White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster
Pallas's Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus One record
White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla Much reduced in numbers
Lesser Fish Eagle Ichthyophaga humilis Rare resident
Grey-headed Fish Eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Very rare and globally near-threatened[27]
White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis Possibly extinct
Indian Vulture Gyps indicus Possibly extinct
Himalayan Griffon Vulture Gyps himalayensis Accidental
Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus Rare winter visitor
Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus
Short-toed Eagle Circaetus gallicus Rare passage migrant and winter visitor
Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela
Western Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus Rare winter visitor
Eastern Marsh Harrier Circus spilonotus Winter visitor
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus Rare winter visitor
Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus Accidental
Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos Winter visitor
Crested Goshawk Accipiter trivirgatus
Shikra Accipiter badius
Chinese Goshawk Accipiter soloensis Passage migrant and winter visitor
Japanese Sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis Passage migrant and winter visitor
Besra Accipiter virgatus
Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus Rare winter visitor
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis Rare winter visitor
Rufous-winged Buzzard Butastur liventer
Grey-faced Buzzard Butastur indicus Passage migrant and winter visitor
Common Buzzard Buteo buteo Winter visitor
Black Eagle Ictinaetus malayensis
Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Uncommon passage migrant and winter visitor
Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis Accidental
Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca Rare winter visitor
Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciatus Rare
Booted Eagle Aquila pennatus Rare passage migrant and winter visitor
Rufous-bellied Eagle Aquila kienerii
Changeable Hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus
Mountain Hawk-eagle Spizaetus nipalensis
Blyth's Hawk-eagle Spizaetus alboniger
Wallace's Hawk-eagle Spizaetus nanus

[edit] Falcons

Order: Falconiformes Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide of which nine occur in Thailand.[26]

Eurasian Hobby, a rare winter visitor
Eurasian Hobby, a rare winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
White-rumped Falcon Polihierax insignis
Collared Falconet Microhierax caerulescens
Black-thighed Falconet Microhierax fringillarius
Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus Winter visitor
Amur Falcon Falco amurensis Very rare passage migrant
Merlin Falco columbarius
Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo Rare winter visitor
Oriental Hobby Falco severus
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Mainly winter visitor

[edit] Pheasants and partridges

Order: Galliformes Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide of which 26 occur in Thailand.[28]

Malayan Peacock-pheasant,near extinct due to deforestation
Malayan Peacock-pheasant,
near extinct due to deforestation
Common name Binomial Status
Chinese Francolin Francolinus pintadeanus
Long-billed Partridge Rhizothera longirostris
Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica Very rare winter visitor
Rain Quail Coturnix coromandelica
Blue-breasted Quail Coturnix chinensis
Rufous-throated Partridge Arborophila rufogularis
Grey-breasted Partridge Arborophila orientalis Accidental. Sometimes split as Malayan Partridge A. campbelli[3]
Bar-backed Partridge Arborophila brunneopectus
Chestnut-headed Partridge Arborophila cambodiana
Scaly-breasted Partridge Arborophila chloropus
Chestnut-necklaced Partridge Arborophila charltonii Rare and globally endangered[29]
Ferruginous Partridge Caloperdix oculea
Crested Partridge Rollulus rouloul Rare and globally threatened[30]
Mountain Bamboo-partridge Bambusicola fytchii
Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus
Kalij Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos
Silver Pheasant Lophura nycthemera
Crestless Fireback Lophura erythrophthalma
Crested Fireback Lophura ignita Rare and globally endangered[31]
Siamese Fireback Lophura diardi
Hume's Pheasant Syrmaticus humiae Rare
Grey Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum
Malayan Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron malacense Near extinct[4]
Great Argus Argusianus argus
Green Peafowl Pavo muticus Rare, much reduced in numbers

[edit] Buttonquails

Order: Gruiformes Family: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails.The female is the brighter of the sexes, and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide of which three occur in Thailand.[28]

Barred Buttonquail, a common resident
Barred Buttonquail, a common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Small Buttonquail Turnix sylvatica
Yellow-legged Buttonquail Turnix tanki
Barred Buttonquail Turnix suscitator

[edit] Cranes

Order: Gruiformes Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide of which two occur in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Sarus Crane Grus antigone Extirpated and globally vulnerable [32]
Common Crane Grus grus Accidental

[edit] Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots

Order: Gruiformes Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and appear to be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide of which 15 occur in Thailand.[33]

White-breasted Waterhenvery common resident
White-breasted Waterhen
very common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Red-legged Crake Rallina fasciata
Slaty-legged Crake Rallina eurizonoides Rare, mainly winter visitor
Slaty-breasted Rail Gallirallus striatus
Water Rail Rallus aquaticus Rare winter visitor
White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus
Black-tailed Crake Amaurornis bicolor Rare
Baillon's Crake Porzana pusilla Winter visitor
Spotted Crake Porzana porzana Very rare winter visitor
Ruddy-breasted Crake Porzana fusca
Band-bellied Crake Porzana paykullii Very rare winter visitor
White-browed Crake Porzana cinerea
Watercock Gallicrex cinerea Summer visitor and resident
Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra Winter visitor

[edit] Finfoot

Order: Gruiformes Family: Heliornithidae

Heliornithidae is small family of tropical birds which webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are three species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[34][14]

Common name Binomial Status
Masked Finfoot Heliopais personata Winter visitor and passage migrant

[edit] Jacanas

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There eight species worldwide of which two occur in Thailand.[35]

Common name Binomial Status
Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus Winter visitor and resident
Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus

[edit] Painted snipe

Female Greater Painted-snipe. This is one of the few birds where the female is brighter than the male
Female Greater Painted-snipe.
This is one of the few birds where the female is brighter than the male[4]

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are two species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[35]

Common name Binomial Status
Greater Painted-snipe Rostratula benghalensis

[edit] Crab Plover

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Dromadidae

The Crab Plover is related to the waders, but is the only member of its family. It resembles a plover but has very long grey legs and a strong black bill similar to that of a tern. It has black and white plumage, a long neck, partially webbed feet and a bill designed for eating crabs.[35]

Common name Binomial Status
Crab Plover Dromas ardeola Rare but annual in winter

[edit] Avocets and stilts

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Recurvirostridae

The Black-winged Stilt is common in wetlands
The Black-winged Stilt is common in wetlands

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are nine species worldwide of which two occur in Thailand.[35]

Common name Binomial Status
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus Resident and winter visitor
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta Accidental

[edit] Thick-knees

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are nine species worldwide of which three occur in Thailand.[35]

Common name Binomial Status
Stone Curlew Burhinus oedicnemus Rare
Great Thick-knee Burhinus recurvirostris Possibly extinct
Beach Thick-knee Burhinus magnirostris Rare and local

[edit] Pratincoles and coursers

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide of which two occur in Thailand.[35]

Little Pratincole, a wader which hunts insects in flight
Little Pratincole, a wader which hunts insects in flight
Common name Binomial Status
Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum Summer visitor
Little Pratincole Glareola lactea Resident and winter visitor

[edit] Plovers and lapwings

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide of which 14 occur in Thailand.[35] In addition to the listed species, a distinctive Charadrius plover known as ‘White-faced’ Plover has been seen in Thailand in recent years. It is at present unclear whether it is a new species or a subspecies of Kentish Plover.[5]

Adult Grey Plover, common winter visitor
Adult Grey Plover, common winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus Rare winter visitor
River Lapwing Vanellus duvaucelii
Grey-headed Lapwing Vanellus cinereus Winter visitor
Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus
Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva Winter visitor
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola Winter visitor
Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula Accidental
Long-billed Plover Charadrius placidus Rare winter visitor
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius Winter visitor
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus Winter visitor
Malaysian Plover Charadrius peronii
Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus Winter visitor
Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii Winter visitor

[edit] Sandpipers and allies

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide of which 39 occur in Thailand.[35]

Red-necked Stintsvery common winter visitor
Red-necked Stints
very common winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola Winter visitor
Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus Rare winter visitor
Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola Very rare winter visitor
Pintail Snipe Gallinago stenura Winter visitor
Swinhoe's Snipe Gallinago megala Very rare winter visitor
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago Winter visitor
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus One record
Asian Dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus Rare on passage
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa Winter visitor
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica Winter visitor
Little Curlew Numenius minutus Very rare passage migrant
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus Winter visitor
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata Winter visitor
Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis Rare passage migrant
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus Winter visitor
Common Redshank Tringa totanus Winter visitor
Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis Winter visitor
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia Winter visitor
Nordmann's Greenshank Tringa guttifer Rare winter visitor
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus Winter visitor
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola Winter visitor
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus Winter visitor
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos Winter visitor
Grey-tailed Tattler Heterosceles brevipes Rare on passage
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres Winter visitor
Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris Mainly passage migrant
Red Knot Calidris canutus Winter visitor
Sanderling Calidris alba Winter visitor
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis Common winter visitor
Little Stint Calidris minuta Rare in winter[4]
Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii Winter visitor
Long-toed Stint Calidris subminuta Winter visitor
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata Very rare winter visitor
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea Winter visitor
Dunlin Calidris alpina Rare winter visitor
Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus Rare on passage and in winter, declining due to collapse of breeding population[36][37]
Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus Winter visitor
Ruff Philomachus pugnax Winter and passage visitor
Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus Rare in winter or on passage

[edit] Skuas

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are seven species worldwide of which three occur in Thailand.[11]

Common name Binomial Status
Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus Winter visitor
Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus Rare winter visitor
Long-tailed Skua Stercorarius longicaudus Accidental

[edit] Gulls

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide of which eight occur in Thailand.[11]

Heuglin's Gullsuncommon winter visitor
Heuglin's Gulls
uncommon winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Black-tailed Gull Larus crassirostris Very rare winter visitor
Common Gull Larus canus Accidental
Heuglin's Gull Larus heuglini Winter visitor
Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans Uncertain status
Great Black-headed Gull Larus ichthyaetus Very rare winter visitor
Brown-headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus Rare winter visitor
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus Winter visitor
Slender-billed Gull Larus genei Very rare winter visitor

[edit] Terns

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide of which 16 occur in Thailand.[11]

Whiskered Ternvery common winter visitor
Whiskered Tern
very common winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica Winter visitor
Caspian Tern Sterna caspia Winter visitor
Lesser Crested Tern Sterna bengalensis Rare winter visitor
Chinese Crested Tern Sterna bernsteini Possibly extinct
Great Crested Tern Sterna bergii
River Tern Sterna aurantia Possibly extinct
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii
Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana
Common Tern Sterna hirundo Winter visitor
Little Tern Sterna albifrons
Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda Possibly extinct
Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus
Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus Winter visitor
Brown Noddy Anous stolidus Possibly extinct

[edit] Skimmers

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are three species worldwide of which one has occurred in Thailand.[11]

Common name Binomial Status
Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis One record

[edit] Pigeons and doves

Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide of which 28 occur in Thailand.[38]

Pied Imperial-pigeonlocally common in coastal forest
Pied Imperial-pigeon
locally common in coastal forest
Common name Binomial Status
Rock Pigeon Columba livia Due to hybridisation with feral pigeons, few if any pure-bred birds remain in Thailand[3]
Speckled Wood Pigeon Columba hodgsonii
Ashy Wood Pigeon Columba pulchricollis
Pale-capped Pigeon Columba punicea Rare, uncertain status
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis
Red Collared-dove Streptopelia tranquebarica
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis
Barred Cuckoo-dove Macropygia unchall
Little Cuckoo-dove Macropygia ruficeps
Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica
Zebra Dove Geopelia striata Native in south, introduced to central Thailand[39]
Nicobar Pigeon Caloenas nicobarica Rare and globally endangered[40]
Little Green-pigeon Treron olax Rare
Pink-necked Pigeon Treron vernans
Cinnamon-headed Pigeon Treron fulvicollis Possibly extirpated, globally threatened[41]
Orange-breasted Pigeon Treron bicincta
Pompadour Green Pigeon Treron pompadora
Thick-billed Pigeon Treron curvirostra
Large Green Pigeon Treron capellei Rare and globally vulnerable[42]
Yellow-footed Pigeon Treron phoenicoptera
Yellow-vented Pigeon Treron seimundi Very rare
Pin-tailed Pigeon Treron apicauda
Wedge-tailed Pigeon Treron sphenura
White-bellied Pigeon Treron sieboldii Very rare
Jambu Fruit Dove Ptilinopus jambu
Green Imperial Pigeon Ducula aenea
Mountain Imperial Pigeon Ducula badia
Pied Imperial Pigeon Ducula bicolor

[edit] Parrots

Order: Psittaciformes Family: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape and a generally erect stance. The upper mandible has slight mobility in the joint with the skull. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide of which seven occur in Thailand.[14]

Red-breasted Parakeetuncommon resident
Red-breasted Parakeet
uncommon resident
Common name Binomial Status
Blue-rumped Parrot Psittinus cyanurus Rare, much reduced
Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria Rare, much reduced
Grey-headed Parakeet Psittacula finschii
Blossom-headed Parakeet Psittacula roseata
Red-breasted Parakeet Psittacula alexandri
Vernal Hanging Parrot Loriculus vernalis
Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot Loriculus galgulus

[edit] Cuckoos

Order: Cuculiformes Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Many Old World cuckoo species are brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide of which 31 occur in Thailand.[14]

Female Asian Koelcommon resident
Female Asian Koel
common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Pied Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus Accidental
Chestnut-winged Cuckoo Clamator coromandus Summer visitor and on passage
Large Hawk-cuckoo Cuculus sparverioides
Common Hawk-cuckoo Cuculus varius One record
Moustached Hawk-cuckoo Cuculus vagans
Malaysian Hawk-cuckoo Cuculus fugax
Hodgson's Hawk-cuckoo Cuculus nisicolor
Northern Hawk-cuckoo Cuculus hyperythrus
Indian Cuckoo Cuculus micropterus
Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus Uncertain status
Oriental Cuckoo Cuculus saturatus Passage migrant
Sunda Cuckoo Cuculus lepidus
Lesser Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus Very rare
Banded Bay Cuckoo Cacomantis sonneratii
Plaintive Cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus
Brush Cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus
Little Bronze-cuckoo Chrysococcyx minutillus
Asian Emerald Cuckoo Chrysococcyx maculatus Resident and winter visitor
Violet Cuckoo Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus
Asian Drongo-cuckoo Surniculus lugubris
Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopacea
Black-bellied Malkoha Phaenicophaeus diardi
Chestnut-bellied Malkoha Phaenicophaeus sumatranus
Green-billed Malkoha Phaenicophaeus tristis
Raffles's Malkoha Phaenicophaeus chlorophaeus
Red-billed Malkoha Phaenicophaeus javanicus
Chestnut-breasted Malkoha Phaenicophaeus curvirostris
Coral-billed Ground-cuckoo Carpococcyx renauldi
Short-toed Coucal Centropus rectunguis Accidental
Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis
Lesser Coucal Centropus bengalensis

[edit] Barn owls

Order: Strigiformes Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide of which two occur in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Barn Owl Tyto alba
Oriental Bay Owl Phodilus badius

[edit] Typical owls

Order: Strigiformes Family: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide of which 18 occur in Thailand.[14]

Collared Scops Owl(grey morph)very common resident
Collared Scops Owl
(grey morph)
very common resident
Common name Binomial Status
White-fronted Scops Owl Otus sagittatus Rare and globally vulnerable[43]
Reddish Scops Owl Otus rufescens Rare and globally threatened[44]
Mountain Scops Owl Otus spilocephalus
Collared Scops Owl Otus lettia
Sunda Scops Owl Otus lempiji
Oriental Scops Owl Otus sunia
Spot-bellied Eagle Owl Bubo nipalensis
Barred Eagle Owl Bubo sumatranus
Dusky Eagle Owl Bubo coromandus Very rare
Brown Fish Owl Ketupa zeylonensis
Buffy Fish Owl Ketupa ketupu
Spotted Wood Owl Strix seloputo
Brown Wood Owl Strix leptogrammica
Collared Owlet Glaucidium brodiei
Asian Barred Owlet Glaucidium cuculoides
Spotted Owlet Athene brama
Brown Hawk Owl Ninox scutulata
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus Very rare winter visitor

[edit] Frogmouths

Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Podargidae

The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. They are named for their large flattened hooked bills and huge frog-like gape, which they use to take insects. There are 12 species worldwide of which four occur in Thailand.[45]

Common name Binomial Status
Large Frogmouth Batrachostomus auritus Very rare
Gould's Frogmouth Batrachostomus stellatus Rare
Hodgson's Frogmouth Batrachostomus hodgsoni
Javan Frogmouth Batrachostomus javensis

[edit] Nightjars

Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized ground-nesting nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide of which six occur in Thailand.[45]

Large-tailed Nightjarcommon resident
Large-tailed Nightjar
common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Malaysian Nightjar Eurostopodus temminckii This and the following species are now often placed in a separate family
Great Eared-nightjar Eurostopodus macrotis
Grey Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus Winter visitor, breeds in mountains
Large-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus
Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus
Savanna Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis

[edit] Swifts

Order: Apodiformes Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide of which 14 occur in Thailand.[46]

House Swiftcommon resident
House Swift
common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia esculenta Rare
Himalayan Swiftlet Aerodramus brevirostris Breeds in highlands, winter visitor elsewhere
Indochinese Swiftlet Aerodramus rogersi
Black-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus maximus
Edible-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus
German's Swiftlet Aerodramus germani
Silver-rumped Needletail Rhaphidura leucopygialis
White-throated Needletail Hirundapus caudacutus Rare migrant
Silver-backed Needletail Hirundapus cochinchinensis Uncertain status
Brown-backed Needletail Hirundapus giganteus
Asian Palm Swift Cypsiurus balasiensis
Pacific Swift Apus pacificus Winter visitor, some breed
Dark-rumped Swift Apus acuticauda Very rare winter visitor
House Swift Apus nipalensis

[edit] Treeswifts

Order: Apodiformes Family: Hemiprocnidae

The treeswifts or crested swifts are aerial near passerine birds, closely related to the true swifts. They differ from the true swifts in that they have crests, long forked tails and soft plumage. There are 4 species worldwide of which three occur in Thailand.[46]

Common name Binomial Status
Crested Treeswift Hemiprocne coronata
Grey-rumped Treeswift Hemiprocne longipennis
Whiskered Treeswift Hemiprocne comata

[edit] Trogons

Order: Trogoniformes Family: Trogonidae

Red-headed Trogoncommon resident
Red-headed Trogon
common resident

The family Trogonidae includes the trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide of which six occur in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Red-naped Trogon Harpactes kasumba Rare
Diard's Trogon Harpactes diardii
Cinnamon-rumped Trogon Harpactes orrhophaeus Rare
Scarlet-rumped Trogon Harpactes duvaucelii
Red-headed Trogon Harpactes erythrocephalus
Orange-breasted Trogon Harpactes oreskios

[edit] Kingfishers

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide of which 16 occur in Thailand.[47]

Stork-billed Kingfisheruncommon resident
Stork-billed Kingfisher
uncommon resident
Common name Binomial Status
Blyth's Kingfisher Alcedo hercules Very rare winter visitor
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis Very common winter visitor
Blue-eared Kingfisher Alcedo meninting
Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo euryzona
Black-backed Kingfisher Ceyx erithacus
Rufous-backed Kingfisher Ceyx rufidorsa
Banded Kingfisher Lacedo pulchella
Brown-winged Kingfisher Pelargopsis amauropterus
Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis
Ruddy Kingfisher Halcyon coromanda
White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
Black-capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileata Winter visitor and passage migrant
Collared Kingfisher Todirhamphus chloris
Rufous-collared Kingfisher Actenoides concretus Rare and reduced
Crested Kingfisher Megaceryle lugubris
Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis

[edit] Bee-eaters

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, southern Asia, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long down-turned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide of which six occur in Thailand.[47]

Red-bearded Bee-eaterfairly common resident
Red-bearded Bee-eater
fairly common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Red-bearded Bee-eater Nyctyornis amictus
Blue-bearded Bee-eater Nyctyornis athertoni
Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis
Blue-throated Bee-eater Merops viridis Resident, winter visitor and passage migrant
Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus Resident, winter visitor and passage migrant
Chestnut-headed Bee-eater Merops leschenaulti

[edit] Typical rollers

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide of which two occur in Thailand.[47]

Common name Binomial Status
Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis
Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis

[edit] Hoopoe

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and pink plumage and a large erectile crest on the head. There are two species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[48]

Common name Binomial Status
Hoopoe Upupa epops

[edit] Hornbills

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Bucerotidae

Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured. There are 57 species worldwide of which 13 occur in Thailand.[14]

Oriental Pied-hornbillfairly common resident
Oriental Pied-hornbill
fairly common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Oriental Pied-hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris
Black Hornbill Anthracoceros malayanus Rare
Rhinoceros Hornbill Buceros rhinoceros Rare, far south
Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis
Helmeted Hornbill Buceros vigil
Brown Hornbill Anorrhinus austeni
Rusty-cheeked Hornbill Anorrhinus tickelli
Bushy-crested Hornbill Anorrhinus galeritus
White-crowned Hornbill Aceros comatus
Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis Rare
Wrinkled Hornbill Aceros corrugatus Near extinct
Wreathed Hornbill Aceros undulatus
Plain-pouched Hornbill Aceros subruficollis Rare

[edit] Barbets

Order: Piciformes Family: Megalaimidae

The Asian barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide of which 15 occur in Thailand.[49]

Lineated Barbetcommon resident
Lineated Barbet
common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Fire-tufted Barbet Psilopogon pyrolophus Accidental
Great Barbet Megalaima virens
Lineated Barbet Megalaima lineata
Green-eared Barbet Megalaima faiostricta
Gold-whiskered Barbet Megalaima chrysopogon
Red-crowned Barbet Megalaima rafflesii Rare and globally threatened[50]
Red-throated Barbet Megalaima mystacophanos
Golden-throated Barbet Megalaima franklinii
Black-browed Barbet Megalaima oorti Accidental
Blue-throated Barbet Megalaima asiatica
Moustached Barbet Megalaima incognita
Yellow-crowned Barbet Megalaima henricii
Blue-eared Barbet Megalaima australis
Coppersmith Barbet Megalaima haemacephala
Brown Barbet Calorhamphus fuliginosus

[edit] Honeyguides

Order: Piciformes Family: Indicatoridae

Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the behaviour of the Greater Honeyguide which leads large animals to bees' nests and then feeds on the wax once the animal has broken the nest open to get at the honey. There are 17 species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Malaysian Honeyguide Indicator archipelagicus Rare

[edit] Woodpeckers

Order: Piciformes Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide of which 36 occur in Thailand.[14]

Male Fulvous-breasted Woodpeckeruncommon resident
Male Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker
uncommon resident
Common name Binomial Status
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla Winter visitor
Speckled Piculet Picumnus innominatus
Rufous Piculet Sasia abnormis
White-browed Piculet Sasia ochracea
Grey-capped Woodpecker Dendrocopos canicapillus
Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker Dendrocopos macei
Stripe-breasted Woodpecker Dendrocopos atratus
Yellow-crowned Woodpecker Dendrocopos mahrattensis Rare
Rufous-bellied Woodpecker Dendrocopos hyperythrus
Crimson-breasted Woodpecker Dendrocopos cathpharius
Rufous Woodpecker Celeus brachyurus
White-bellied Woodpecker Dryocopus javensis
Banded Woodpecker Picus mineaceus
Lesser Yellownape Picus chlorolophus
Crimson-winged Woodpecker Picus puniceus
Greater Yellownape Picus flavinucha
Checker-throated Woodpecker Picus mentalis
Streak-breasted Woodpecker Picus viridanus
Laced Woodpecker Picus vittatus
Streak-throated Woodpecker Picus xanthopygaeus
Black-headed Woodpecker Picus erythropygius
Grey-faced Woodpecker Picus canus
Olive-backed Woodpecker Dinopium rafflesii Rare
Common Flameback Dinopium javanense
Greater Flameback Chrysocolaptes lucidus
Pale-headed Woodpecker Gecinulus grantia
Bamboo Woodpecker Gecinulus viridis
Maroon Woodpecker Blythipicus rubiginosus
Bay Woodpecker Blythipicus pyrrhotis
Orange-backed Woodpecker Reinwardtipicus validus
Buff-rumped Woodpecker Meiglyptes tristis
Black-and-buff Woodpecker Meiglyptes jugularis
Buff-necked Woodpecker Meiglyptes tukki
Grey-and-buff Woodpecker Hemicircus concretus
Heart-spotted Woodpecker Hemicircus canente
Great Slaty Woodpecker Mulleripicus pulverulentus

[edit] Broadbills

Long-tailed Broadbillfairly common resident
Long-tailed Broadbill
fairly common resident

Order: Passeriformes Family: Eurylaimidae

The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds that feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests. There are 15 species worldwide of which seven occur in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Dusky Broadbill Corydon sumatranus
Black-and-red Broadbill Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos
Banded Broadbill Eurylaimus javanicus
Black-and-yellow Broadbill Eurylaimus ochromalus
Long-tailed Broadbill Psarisomus dalhousiae
Silver-breasted Broadbill Serilophus lunatus
Green Broadbill Calyptomena viridis

[edit] Pittas

Order: Passeriformes Family: Pittidae

Pittas are medium-sized stocky passerines with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many, but not all, are brightly coloured. They spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrate prey. There are 32 species worldwide of which 13 occur in Thailand.[14]

Hooded Pittauncommon wet season migrant visitor, some winter in the Peninsular
Hooded Pitta
uncommon wet season migrant visitor, some winter in the Peninsular
Common name Binomial Status
Eared Pitta Pitta phayrei
Blue-naped Pitta Pitta nipalensis
Blue-rumped Pitta Pitta soror
Rusty-naped Pitta Pitta oatesi
Giant Pitta Pitta caerulea Rare and globally threatened[51]
Blue Pitta Pitta cyanea
Banded Pitta Pitta guajana
Bar-bellied Pitta Pitta elliotii Rare and globally threatened[52]
Gurney's Pitta Pitta gurneyi Rediscovered 1986, rare and endangered near endemic[53]
Hooded Pitta Pitta sordida
Garnet Pitta Pitta granatina Rare and globally threatened[54]
Blue-winged Pitta Pitta moluccensis Summer visitor, passage migrant
Mangrove Pitta Pitta megarhyncha

[edit] Larks

Order: Passeriformes Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide of which three occur in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Australasian Bushlark Mirafra javanica
Indochinese Bushlark Mirafra erythrocephala
Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula

[edit] Swallows and martins

Order: Passeriformes Family: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide of which 13 occur in Thailand.[6]

Pacific Swallowcommon resident
Pacific Swallow
common resident
Common name Binomial Status
White-eyed River Martin Pseudochelidon sirintarae Endemic, probably globally extinct[55][56]
Sand Martin Riparia riparia Winter visitor
Plain Martin Riparia paludicola
Dusky Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne concolor
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Winter visitor
Pacific Swallow Hirundo tahitica
Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii
Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica Winter visitor, local breeder
Striated Swallow Cecropis striolata
Rufous-bellied Swallow Cecropis badia
House Martin Delichon urbica Rare winter visitor
Asian House Martin Delichon dasypus Winter visitor
Nepal House Martin Delichon nipalensis One record

[edit] Wagtails and pipits

Order: Passeriformes Family: Motacillidae

Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails and comprises the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. These are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide of which 13 occur in Thailand.[14]

White Wagtail of subspecies M. a. leucopsis,commonest of three wintering subspecies
White Wagtail of subspecies M. a. leucopsis,
commonest of three wintering subspecies[3]
Common name Binomial Status
Forest Wagtail Dendronanthus indicus Winter visitor
White Wagtail Motacilla alba Winter visitor
Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola Winter visitor
Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava Winter visitor
Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea Winter visitor
Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus
Blyth's Pipit Anthus godlewskii Accidental
Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni Winter visitor
Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus Winter visitor
Rosy Pipit Anthus roseatus Localised winter visitor
Japanese Pipit Anthus rubescens Accidental

[edit] Cuckoo-shrikes and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Campephagidae

The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some minivet species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide of which 18 occur in Thailand.[14]

Small Minivet (male)common resident
Small Minivet (male)
common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Large Cuckoo-shrike Coracina macei
Javan Cuckoo-shrike Coracina javensis Accidental
Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike Coracina striata Rare, much reduced
Indochinese Cuckoo-shrike Coracina polioptera
Black-winged Cuckoo-shrike Coracina melaschistos Resident and winter visitor
Lesser Cuckoo-shrike Coracina fimbriata
Pied Triller Lalage nigra
Rosy Minivet Pericrocotus roseus Winter visitor
Brown-rumped Minivet Pericrocotus cantonensis
Ashy Minivet Pericrocotus divaricatus Winter visitor
Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Fiery Minivet Pericrocotus igneus
Long-tailed Minivet Pericrocotus ethologus
Short-billed Minivet Pericrocotus brevirostris
Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus
Grey-chinned Minivet Pericrocotus solaris
Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike Hemipus picatus
Black-winged Flycatcher-shrike Hemipus hirundinaceus


Order: Passeriformes Family: Eupetidae

The Malaysian Rail-babbler is a rail-like passerine bird which inhabits the floor of primary forest in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. It is the only member of its family. The nominate subspecies E. m. macrocerus is found in Thailand.[57] .

Common name Binomial Status
Malaysian Rail-babbler Eupetes macrocerus


Order: Passeriformes Family: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.There are 130 species worldwide of which 36 occur in Thailand.[14]

Mountain Bulbulcommon resident in highlands
Mountain Bulbul
common resident in highlands
Common name Binomial Status
Crested Finchbill Spizixos canifrons
Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus Rare and globally vulnerable[58]
Striated Bulbul Pycnonotus striatus
Black-and-white Bulbul Pycnonotus melanoleucus Rare
Black-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps
Black-crested Bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus
Scaly-breasted Bulbul Pycnonotus squamatus
Grey-bellied Bulbul Pycnonotus cyaniventris
Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus
Brown-breasted Bulbul Pycnonotus xanthorrhous
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis
Sooty-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus aurigaster
Puff-backed Bulbul Pycnonotus eutilotus
Stripe-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus finlaysoni
Flavescent Bulbul Pycnonotus flavescens
Yellow-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus goiavier
Olive-winged Bulbul Pycnonotus plumosus
Streak-eared Bulbul Pycnonotus blanfordi
Cream-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus simplex
Red-eyed Bulbul Pycnonotus brunneus
Spectacled Bulbul Pycnonotus erythropthalmos
Finsch's Bulbul Alophoixus finschii
White-throated Bulbul Alophoixus flaveolus
Puff-throated Bulbul Alophoixus pallidus
Ochraceous Bulbul Alophoixus ochraceus
Grey-cheeked Bulbul Alophoixus bres
Yellow-bellied Bulbul Alophoixus phaeocephalus
Hairy-backed Bulbul Tricholestes criniger
Olive Bulbul Iole virescens
Grey-eyed Bulbul Iole propinqua
Buff-vented Bulbul Iole olivacea
Streaked Bulbul Ixos malaccensis
Ashy Bulbul Hemixos flavala
Mountain Bulbul Ixos mcclellandii
Black Bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus Resident and winter visitor
White-headed Bulbul Hypsipetes thompsoni


Order: Passeriformes Family: Chloropseidae

The Leafbirds are small, bulbul-like birds. The males are brightly plumaged, usually in greens and yellows. There are eight species worldwide of which five occur in Thailand.[14]

Orange-bellied Leafbirdfairly common resident
Orange-bellied Leafbird
fairly common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Greater Green Leafbird Chloropsis sonnerati
Lesser Green Leafbird Chloropsis cyanopogon
Blue-winged Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis
Golden-fronted Leafbird Chloropsis aurifrons
Orange-bellied Leafbird Chloropsis hardwickii


Order: Passeriformes Family: Aegithinidae

The ioras are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub, but whereas that group tends to be drab in coloration, ioras are sexually dimorphic, with the males being brightly plumaged in yellows and greens. There are four species worldwide of which three occur in Thailand.[59]

Common name Binomial Status
Common Iora Aegithina tiphia
Green Iora Aegithina viridissima
Great Iora Aegithina lafresnayei


Order: Passeriformes Family: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are five species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[60]

Common name Binomial Status
Brown Dipper Cinclus pallasii Rare non-breeding visitor

Thrushes and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide of which 21 occur in Thailand.[61]

Blue Whistling Thrushcommon resident and winter visitor, Thailand breeding subspecies shown
Blue Whistling Thrush
common resident and winter visitor, Thailand breeding subspecies shown
Common name Binomial Status
White-throated Rock Thrush Monticola gularis Winter visitor
Chestnut-bellied Rock Thrush Monticola rufiventris Winter visitor, resident on highest peaks
Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius Resident (ssp madoci) in far south and winter visitor
Blue Whistling Thrush Myophonus caeruleus Resident and winter visitor[3]
Chestnut-capped Thrush Zoothera interpres Rare
Orange-headed Thrush Zoothera citrina Winter visitor
Siberian Thrush Zoothera sibirica Winter visitor
Long-tailed Thrush Zoothera dixoni Winter visitor
Scaly Thrush Zoothera dauma Winter visitor, resident in mountains
Dark-sided Thrush Zoothera marginata
Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis Rare winter visitor
Japanese Thrush Turdus cardis Accidental
Grey-winged Blackbird Turdus boulboul Rare winter visitor
Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula One record
Chestnut Thrush Turdus rubrocanus Rare winter visitor
Grey-sided Thrush Turdus feae Rare winter visitor
Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus obscurus Winter visitor
Dark-throated Thrush Turdus ruficollis T. r. ruficlllis and T. r. atrogularis are both very rare winter visitors.
Dusky Thrush Turdus naumanni Irruptive in winter
Lesser Shortwing Brachypteryx leucophrys
White-browed Shortwing Brachypteryx montana

Cisticolas and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide of which eight occur in Thailand.[62]

Golden-headed Cisticola Common grassland resident
Golden-headed Cisticola
Common grassland resident
Common name Binomial Status
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis
Golden-headed Cisticola Cisticola exilis
Brown Prinia Prinia polychroa
Hill Prinia Prinia atrogularis
Rufescent Prinia Prinia rufescens
Grey-breasted Prinia Prinia hodgsonii
Yellow-bellied Prinia Prinia flaviventris
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata

Old World warblers

Order: Passeriformes Family: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide of which 58 occur in Thailand.[62]

Greenish Warblerfairly common winter visitor
Greenish Warbler
fairly common winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Chestnut-headed Tesia Tesia castaneocoronata
Slaty-bellied Tesia Tesia olivea
Grey-bellied Tesia Tesia cyaniventer Very rare
Asian Stubtail Urosphena squameiceps Winter visitor
Manchurian Bush Warbler Cettia canturians Rare winter visitor
Pale-footed Bush Warbler Cettia pallidipes
Chestnut-crowned Bush Warbler Cettia major Very rare winter visitor
Aberrant Bush Warbler Cettia flavolivacea Winter visitor
Spotted Bush Warbler Bradypterus thoracicus Winter visitor
Chinese Bush Warbler Bradypterus tacsanowskius Very rare winter visitor
Russet Bush Warbler Bradypterus seebohmi
Brown Bush Warbler Bradypterus luteoventris Rare winter visitor
Lanceolated Warbler Locustella lanceolata Winter visitor
Pallas's Grasshopper Warbler Locustella certhiola Winter visitor
Black-browed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps Winter visitor
Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola Rare winter visitor
Blunt-winged Warbler Acrocephalus concinens Winter visitor
Oriental Reed Warbler Acrocephalus orientalis Winter visitor
Large-billed Reed-warbler Acrocephalus orinus Rediscovered 2006[63]
Clamorous Reed Warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus Very rare winter visitor
Thick-billed Warbler Acrocephalus aedon Winter visitor
Mountain Tailorbird Orthotomus cuculatus
Common Tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius
Dark-necked Tailorbird Orthotomus atrogularis
Rufous-tailed Tailorbird Orthotomus sericeus
Ashy Tailorbird Orthotomus ruficeps
Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus Winter visitor
Buff-throated Warbler Phylloscopus subaffinis Winter visitor
Yellow-streaked Warbler Phylloscopus armandii Winter visitor
Radde's Warbler Phylloscopus schwarzi Winter visitor
Buff-barred Warbler Phylloscopus pulcher Winter visitor
Ashy-throated Warbler Phylloscopus maculipennis Winter visitor
Lemon-rumped Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus Winter visitor
Pale-rumped Warbler Phylloscopus chloronotus Accidental
Chinese Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus yunnanensis Winter visitor
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus Winter visitor
Hume's Warbler Phylloscopus humei Winter visitor
Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis Winter and passage visitor
Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides Winter visitor
Pale-legged Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes Winter visitor
Sakhalin Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealoides
Eastern Crowned Warbler Phylloscopus coronatus Winter and passage visitor
Blyth's Leaf-warbler Phylloscopus reguloides Winter visitor
White-tailed Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus davisoni
Yellow-vented Warbler Phylloscopus cantator Rare winter visitor
Sulphur-breasted Warbler Phylloscopus ricketti Winter visitor
Grey-cheeked Warbler Seicercus poliogenys
Chestnut-crowned Warbler Seicercus castaniceps
Rufous-faced Warbler Abroscopus albogularis Rare
Yellow-bellied Warbler Abroscopus superciliaris
Striated Grassbird Megalurus palustris
Rufous-rumped Grassbird Graminicola bengalensis Probably extinct
Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca Rare winter visitor
Grey-crowned Warbler Seicercus tephrocephalus Rare winter visitor
Bianchi's Warbler Seicercus valentini Winter visitor
Plain-tailed Warbler Seicercus soror Winter visitor

Old World flycatchers

Order: Passeriformes Family: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide of which 69 occur in Thailand.[14]

White-capped Water-redstartresident in northern mountains
White-capped Water-redstart
resident in northern mountains
Common name Binomial Status
Brown-chested Jungle-flycatcher Rhinomyias brunneata Rare on passage
Grey-chested Jungle-flycatcher Rhinomyias umbratilis Rare in far south
Fulvous-chested Jungle-flycatcher Rhinomyias olivacea
Siberian Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica Winter visitor
Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica Resident and winter visitor
Brown-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa williamsoni Resident and passage visitor
Brown-breasted Flycatcher Muscicapa muttui Very rare
Ferruginous Flycatcher Muscicapa ferruginea Winter visitor and passage migrant
Korean Flycatcher Ficedula zanthopygia Passage migrant
Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula narcissina Rare winter visitor
Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki Winter visitor
Slaty-backed Flycatcher Ficedula hodgsonii Winter visitor
Rufous-gorgeted Flycatcher Ficedula strophiata Winter visitor
Red-throated Flycatcher Ficedula albicilla Winter visitor
Snowy-browed Flycatcher Ficedula hyperythra
White-gorgeted Flycatcher Ficedula monileger
Rufous-browed Flycatcher Ficedula solitaris
Rufous-chested Flycatcher Ficedula dumetoria
Little Pied Flycatcher Ficedula westermanni
Ultramarine Flycatcher Ficedula superciliaris Winter visitor
Slaty-blue Flycatcher Ficedula tricolor Winter visitor
Sapphire Flycatcher Ficedula sapphira Winter visitor
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana Passage migrant
Verditer Flycatcher Eumyias thalassina Resident and winter visitor
Large Niltava Niltava grandis
Small Niltava Niltava macgrigoriae
Fujian Niltava Niltava davidi Rare winter visitor
Rufous-bellied Niltava Niltava sundara Winter visitor
Vivid Niltava Niltava vivida Winter visitor
White-tailed Flycatcher Cyornis concretus Rare
Hainan Blue Flycatcher Cyornis hainanus
Pale Blue Flycatcher Cyornis unicolor
Blue-throated Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides Resident and winter visitor
Hill Blue Flycatcher Cyornis banyumas
Malaysian Blue Flycatcher Cyornis turcosus
Tickell's Blue Flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae
Mangrove Blue Flycatcher Cyornis rufigastra
Pygmy Blue Flycatcher Muscicapella hodgsoni Rare winter visitor
Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis
Japanese Robin Erithacus akahige One record
Rufous-tailed Robin Luscinia sibilans Rare winter visitor
Siberian Rubythroat Luscinia calliope Winter visitor
White-tailed Rubythroat Luscinia pectoralis One record
Bluethroat Luscinia svecica Winter visitor
Black-throated Blue Robin Luscinia obscura Very rare winter visitor
Siberian Blue Robin Luscinia cyane Winter visitor
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus Winter visitor
Golden Bush Robin Tarsiger chrysaeus Rare winter visitor
Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis
White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus
Rufous-tailed Shama Trichixos pyrropyga Rare
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus Winter visitor
Blue-fronted Redstart Phoenicurus frontalis Rare winter visitor
White-capped Water-redstart Chaimarrornis leucocephalus Mainly winter visitor
Plumbeous Redstart Rhyacornis fuliginosus Resident and winter visitor
White-bellied Redstart Hodgsonius phaenicuroides Resident and winter visitor
Siberian Stonechat Saxicola maura Resident and winter visitor
White-tailed Robin Cinclidium leucurum
Blue-fronted Robin Cinclidium frontale Status uncertain, one record
Chestnut-naped Forktail Enicurus ruficapillus
Black-backed Forktail Enicurus immaculatus
Slaty-backed Forktail Enicurus schistaceus
White-crowned Forktail Enicurus leschenaulti
Purple Cochoa Cochoa purpurea Rare
Green Cochoa Cochoa viridis
Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata
Jerdon's Bushchat Saxicola jerdoni Rare
Grey Bushchat Saxicola ferrea Resident and winter visitor


Order: Passeriformes Family: Rhipiduridae

The fantails are small insectivorous birds with longish, frequently fanned, tails. There are 44 species worldwide of which five occur in Thailand.[64]

Pied Fantail, a very common resident
Pied Fantail, a very common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Yellow-bellied Fantail Rhipidura hypoxantha
White-throated Fantail Rhipidura albicollis
White-browed Fantail Rhipidura aureola
Pied Fantail Rhipidura javanica
Spotted Fantail Rhipidura perlata Rare

Monarch flycatchers

Order: Passeriformes Family: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, which hunt by gleaning, hovering, or flycatching. There are about 99 species worldwide and three occur in Thailand.[65]

Common name Binomial Status
Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea
Japanese Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata Rare winter visitor, passage migrant
Asian Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi Resident and winter visitor


Order: Passeriformes Family: Pachycephalidae

The family Pachycephalidae includes the whistlers, shrike-thrushes, shrike-tits, pitohuis and Crested Bellbird. There are 57 species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Mangrove Whistler Pachycephala grisola

[edit] Babblers

Order: Passeriformes Family: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and colouration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide of which 76 occur in Thailand.[14]

Yellow-eyed Babblervery common resident
Yellow-eyed Babbler
very common resident
Common name Binomial Status
White-crested Laughingthrush Garrulax leucolophus
Lesser Necklaced Laughingthrush Garrulax monileger
Greater Necklaced Laughingthrush Garrulax pectoralis
Black Laughingthrush Garrulax lugubris Rare in far south
White-necked Laughingthrush Garrulax strepitans
Black-throated Laughingthrush Garrulax chinensis
Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush Garrulax mitratus Rare in far south
Spot-breasted Laughingthrush Garrulax merulinus Very rare
White-browed Laughingthrush Garrulax sannio
Chestnut-crowned Laughingthrush Garrulax erythrocephalus
Red-tailed Laughingthrush Garrulax milnei Rare
Red-faced Liocichla Liocichla phoenicea
White-chested Babbler Trichastoma rostratum
Ferruginous Babbler Trichastoma bicolor
Abbott's Babbler Malacocincla abbotti
Horsfield's Babbler Malacocincla sepiarium
Short-tailed Babbler Malacocincla malaccensis
Buff-breasted Babbler Pellorneum tickelli
Spot-throated Babbler Pellorneum albiventre
Puff-throated Babbler Pellorneum ruficeps
Black-capped Babbler Pellorneum capistratum
Moustached Babbler Malacopteron magnirostre
Sooty-capped Babbler Malacopteron affine Rare and globally threatened[66]
Scaly-crowned Babbler Malacopteron cinereum
Rufous-crowned Babbler Malacopteron magnum
Large Scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus hypoleucos
Rusty-cheeked Scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus erythrogenys
White-browed Scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus schisticeps
Red-billed Scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps
Coral-billed Scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus ferruginosus Rare
Striped Wren-babbler Kenopia striata Rare and globally threatened[67]
Large Wren-babbler Napothera macrodactyla
Limestone Wren-babbler Napothera crispifrons
Streaked Wren-babbler Napothera brevicaudata
Eyebrowed Wren-babbler Napothera epilepidota
Pygmy Wren-babbler Pnoepyga pusilla
Deignan's Babbler Stachyris rodolphei Endemic if accepted as a species[68]
Buff-chested Babbler Stachyris ambigua
Rufous-fronted Babbler Stachyris rufifrons
Golden Babbler Stachyris chrysaea
Grey-throated Babbler Stachyris nigriceps
Grey-headed Babbler Stachyris poliocephala
Spot-necked Babbler Stachyris striolata
White-necked Babbler Stachyris leucotis Rare
Black-throated Babbler Stachyris nigricollis
Chestnut-rumped Babbler Stachyris maculata
Chestnut-winged Babbler Stachyris erythroptera
Striped Tit-babbler Macronous gularis
Fluffy-backed Tit-babbler Macronous ptilosus Rare, much reduced
Chestnut-capped Babbler Timalia pileata
Yellow-eyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense
Silver-eared Mesia Leiothrix argentauris
Cutia Cutia nipalensis Rare
White-browed Shrike-babbler Pteruthius flaviscapis
Black-eared Shrike-babbler Pteruthius melanotis
Chestnut-fronted Shrike-babbler Pteruthius aenobarbus
White-hooded Babbler Gampsorhynchus rufulus
Spectacled Barwing Actinodura ramsayi
Blue-winged Minla Minla cyanouroptera
Chestnut-tailed Minla Minla strigula
Rufous-winged Fulvetta Alcippe castaneceps
Rufous-throated Fulvetta Alcippe rufogularis Rare
Brown Fulvetta Alcippe brunneicauda
Brown-cheeked Fulvetta Alcippe poioicephala
Grey-cheeked Fulvetta Alcippe morrisonia
Mountain Fulvetta Alcippe peracensis
Rufous-backed Sibia Heterophasia annectens
Black-backed Sibia Heterophasia melanoleuca
Long-tailed Sibia Heterophasia picaoides
Striated Yuhina Yuhina castaniceps
Whiskered Yuhina Yuhina flavicollis
Burmese Yuhina Yuhina humilis
White-bellied Yuhina Yuhina zantholeuca


Order: Passeriformes Family: Paradoxornithidae

The parrotbills are a group of birds native to East and Southeast Asia, though feral populations are known from elsewhere. They are generally small, long-tailed birds which inhabit reedbeds and similar habitats. There are 20 species worldwide of which five occur in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Grey-headed Parrotbill Paradoxornis gularis
Spot-breasted Parrotbill Paradoxornis guttaticollis
Black-throated Parrotbill Paradoxornis nipalensis
Short-tailed Parrotbill Paradoxornis davidianus Rare
Black-browed Parrotbill Paradoxornis atrosuperciliaris Rare

Long-tailed tits

Order: Passeriformes Family: Aegithalidae

Black-throated Tit, locally common in northern mountains
Black-throated Tit, locally common in northern mountains

Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet that includes insects. There are nine species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[69]

Common name Binomial Status
Black-throated Tit Aegithalos concinnus

Thornbills and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Pardalotidae

Thornbills and their relatives are highly varied small to medium-sized passerine birds that build covered nests entered from the side. There are about 65 species worldwide and one occurs in Thailand.[70]

Common name Binomial Status
Golden-bellied Gerygone Gerygone sulphurea


Order: Passeriformes Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide of which four occur in Thailand.[69]

Asian Great Tits have grey underparts
Asian Great Tits have grey underparts
Common name Binomial Status
Great Tit Parus major
Yellow-cheeked Tit Parus spilonotus
Yellow-browed Tit Sylviparus modestus
Sultan Tit Melanochlora sultanea


Order: Passeriformes Family: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. There are 24 species worldwide of which six occur in Thailand.[69]

Velvet-fronted Nuthatch
Velvet-fronted Nuthatch
Common name Binomial Status
Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch Sitta castanea
Chestnut-vented Nuthatch Sitta nagaensis
Velvet-fronted Nuthatch Sitta frontalis
Blue Nuthatch Sitta azurea Accidental
Giant Nuthatch Sitta magna
Beautiful Nuthatch Sitta formosa


Order: Passeriformes Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are six species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[69]

Common name Binomial Status
Brown-throated Treecreeper Certhia discolor

Penduline tits

Order: Passeriformes Family: Remizidae

The penduline tits are a group of small insectivorous passerine birds, related to the true tits. They are named from the hanging basket nests they construct. There are 13 species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[69]

Common name Binomial Status
Fire-capped Tit Cephalopyrus flammiceps Rare winter visitor

Sunbirds and spiderhunters

Order: Passeriformes Family: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Their flight is fast and direct on short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide of which 22 occur in Thailand.[71]

Plain-throated Sunbirdfairly common in Peninsular
Plain-throated Sunbird
fairly common in Peninsular
Common name Binomial Status
Ruby-cheeked Sunbird Chalcoparia singalensis
Plain Sunbird Anthreptes simplex
Plain-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis
Red-throated Sunbird Anthreptes rhodolaema Rare
Purple-naped Sunbird Hypogramma hypogrammicum
Copper-throated Sunbird Leptocoma calcostetha
Purple-throated Sunbird Leptocoma sperata
Purple Sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus
Olive-backed Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis
Gould's Sunbird Aethopyga gouldiae Winter visitor
Green-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga nipalensis Resident in mountains
Black-throated Sunbird Aethopyga saturata
Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja
Temminck's Sunbird Aethopyga temminckii Rare
Fire-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga ignicauda Accidental
Thick-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera crassirostris
Spectacled Spiderhunter Arachnothera flavigaster
Long-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera robusta Rare
Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter Arachnothera chrysogenys
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter Arachnothera modesta
Streaked Spiderhunter Arachnothera magna


Order: Passeriformes Family: Dicaeidae

The flowerpeckers are very small, stout, often brightly coloured birds, with short tails, short thick curved bills and tubular tongues. There are 44 species worldwide of which ten occur in Thailand.[71]

Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker (male)rare resident
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker (male)
rare resident
Common name Binomial Status
Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus maculatus
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus percussus
Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus thoracicus
Thick-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker Dicaeum chrysorrheum
Yellow-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum melanoxanthum Uncommon, may breed
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum trigonostigma
Plain Flowerpecker Dicaeum concolor
Fire-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum ignipectus
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum Rare resident in far south


Order: Passeriformes Family: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small birds of rather drab appearance, the plumage above being typically greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As the name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eyes. There are 96 species worldwide of which four occur in Thailand.[14]

Japanese White-eye, a common winter visitor
Japanese White-eye, a common winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Chestnut-flanked White-eye Zosterops erythropleurus Winter visitor
Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus
Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus Winter visitor
Everett's White-eye Zosterops everetti

Old World orioles

Order: Passeriformes Family: Oriolidae

The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds, not closely related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide of which six occur in Thailand.[14]

Black-naped Oriolecommon winter visitor
Black-naped Oriole
common winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Dark-throated Oriole Oriolus xanthonotus
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis Winter visitor
Slender-billed Oriole Oriolus tenuirostris Winter visitor
Black-hooded Oriole Oriolus xanthornus
Maroon Oriole Oriolus traillii
Silver Oriole Oriolus mellianus Rare winter visitor


Order: Passeriformes Family: Irenidae

The Fairy-bluebirds are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub. The males are dark-blue and the females a duller green. There are two species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[72]

Common name Binomial Status
Asian Fairy Bluebird Irena puella


Order: Passeriformes Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for the habit of some species of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide of which five occur in Thailand.[73]

Tiger ShrikePassage migrant
Tiger Shrike
Passage migrant
Common name Binomial Status
Tiger Shrike Lanius tigrinus Fairly common passage migrant
Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus Winter visitor
Burmese Shrike Lanius collurioides Winter visitor
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach Passage migrant
Grey-backed Shrike Lanius tephronotus Winter visitor


Order: Passeriformes Family: Prionopidae

The helmetshrikes are similar in build to the shrikes, but tend to be colourful species with distinctive crests or other head ornaments, such as wattles, from which they get their name. There are 12 species worldwide of which four occur in Thailand.[73]

Large Woodshrike, resident breeder
Large Woodshrike, resident breeder
Common name Binomial Status
Large Woodshrike Tephrodornis gularis
Common Woodshrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus
Rufous-winged Philentoma Philentoma pyrhopterum
Maroon-breasted Philentoma Philentoma velatum


Order: Passeriformes Family: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright whilst perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide of which seven occur in Thailand.[14]

Bronzed Drongocommon resident
Bronzed Drongo
common resident
Common name Binomial Status
Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus Resident and winter visitor
Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus Resident and winter visitor
Crow-billed Drongo Dicrurus annectans Winter visitor and passage migrant
Bronzed Drongo Dicrurus aeneus
Lesser Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus remifer
Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus Resident and winter visitor
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus


Order: Passeriformes Family: Artamidae

The woodswallows are soft-plumaged, somber-coloured passerine birds. They are smooth, agile flyers with moderately large, semi-triangular wings. There are 11 species worldwide of which one occurs in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Ashy Woodswallow Artamus fuscus

Crows and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behaviour. There are 120 species worldwide of which 13 occur in Thailand.[74]

Crested Jayuncommon resident
Crested Jay
uncommon resident
Common name Binomial Status
Crested Jay Platylophus galericulatus
Black Magpie Platysmurus leucopterus
Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius
Blue Magpie Urocissa erythrorhyncha
Green Magpie Cissa chinensis
Yellow-breasted Magpie Cissa hypoleuca
Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda
Grey Treepie Dendrocitta formosae
Racket-tailed Treepie Crypsirina temia
Ratchet-tailed Treepie Temnurus temnurus Accidental
Eurasian Magpie Pica pica Accidental
House Crow Corvus splendens Possibly extinct
Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos


Order: Passeriformes Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide of which 19 occur in Thailand.[75]

Adult Jungle Mynauncommon resident
Adult Jungle Myna
uncommon resident
Common name Binomial Status
Asian Glossy Starling Aplonis panayensis
Spot-winged Starling Saroglossa spiloptera Rare winter visitor
Golden-crested Myna Ampeliceps coronatus
Common Hill Myna Gracula religiosa
White-vented Myna Acridotheres grandis
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus
Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus
Common Myna Acridotheres tristis Range expansion through introductions[39]
Vinous-breasted Starling Acridotheres burmannicus
Black-collared Starling Gracupica nigricollis
Asian Pied Starling Gracupica contra
Daurian Starling Sturnia sturnina Resident and passage visitor
Chestnut-cheeked Starling Sturnia philippensis Accidental
White-shouldered Starling Sturnia sinensis Winter visitor
Chestnut-tailed Starling Sturnia malabarica Resident and winter visitor
Brahminy Starling Temenuchus pagodarum Accidental
Rosy Starling Pastor roseus Very rare winter visitor
White-cheeked Starling Sturnus cineraceus Accidental
European Starling Sturnus vulgaris Rare winter visitor

Weavers and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide of which three occur in Thailand.[14]

Common name Binomial Status
Streaked Weaver Ploceus manyar
Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus
Asian Golden Weaver Ploceus hypoxanthus

Waxbills and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide of which eight occur in Thailand.[76]

Male Red Muniauncommon resident
Male Red Munia
uncommon resident
Common name Binomial Status
Red Munia Amandava amandava
Pin-tailed Parrotfinch Erythrura prasina
White-rumped Munia Lonchura striata
Nutmeg Mannikin Lonchura punctulata
White-bellied Munia Lonchura leucogastra
Chestnut Munia Lonchura atricapilla
White-headed Munia Lonchura maja
Java Sparrow Padda oryzivora Common introduced species[39]


Order: Passeriformes Family: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of seed-eating passerine birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In the Old World, most species are named as "buntings". Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are 275 species worldwide, of which eight occur in Thailand.[77]

Little Bunting,common winter visitor
Little Bunting,
common winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Crested Bunting Melophus lathami Winter visitor
Tristram's Bunting Emberiza tristrami Accidental
Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata Winter visitor
Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla Winter visitor
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola Winter visitor
Chestnut Bunting Emberiza rutila Winter visitor
Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala Accidental
Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala Rare winter visitor


Order: Passeriformes Family: Fringillidae

Finches are small to moderately large seed-eating passerine birds with a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and nine primary flight feathers. Finches have a bouncing flight, alternating bouts of flapping with gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide, of which ten occur in Thailand.[76]

Common Rosefinch (female)common winter visitor
Common Rosefinch (female)
common winter visitor
Common name Binomial Status
Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs Accidental
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla Accidental
Dark-breasted Rosefinch Carpodacus nipalensis Winter visitor
Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus Winter visitor
Pink-rumped Rosefinch Carpodacus eos Accidental
Black-headed Greenfinch Carduelis ambigua Rare winter visitor
Yellow-billed Grosbeak Eophona migratoria Accidental
Collared Grosbeak Mycerobas affinis Accidental
Spot-winged Grosbeak Mycerobas melanozanthos
Scarlet Finch Haematospiza sipahi

[edit] Sparrows

Order: Passeriformes Family: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds, typically small, plump, brown or grey with short tails and short powerful beaks. They are seed-eaters, but also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide of which four occur in Thailand.[76]

Male Cinnamon Sparrow, rare in winter
Male Cinnamon Sparrow, rare in winter
Common name Binomial Status
House Sparrow Passer domesticus Recent colonist[4]
Cinnamon Sparrow Passer rutilans Rare winter visitor
Plain-backed Sparrow Passer flaveolus
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus

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